Earlier this year, the Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) outlining new energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers (ACIMs). The proposal calls for energy reductions up to 30 percent, which would apply to most of the ACIM equipment currently on the market. In a recent article for QSR Magazine, I explored the implications of this new DOE proposal within the context of an already dynamic regulatory climate.
As recent regulations set the stage for the use of A2L refrigerants in HVACR, commercial refrigeration stakeholders have questions about system design, safety considerations and servicing best practices. Whether you’re an original equipment manufacturer (OEMs), system designer or service technician, working with lower-flammability A2Ls will require familiarity with standards and procedures that ensure system safety. In a recent article for RSES Journal, I provided an overview of the A2L equipment landscape and discussed how it impacts system design and servicing.
With finalized global warming potential (GWP) limits on the horizon and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown officially at 40 percent reductions, food retailers are entering a new phase in their refrigerant transitions.
Maintaining consistent holding temperatures and following proper quality assurance (QA) processes are especially critical as shipments cross borders into foreign countries. But implementing proper cold chain management best practices can be even more difficult within international shipping lanes, as the export process introduces a variety of additional considerations and potential hazards to perishable quality.
Multiple factors need to be carefully considered when selecting any refrigerant, including its cooling capacity, safety, environmental impact, ease of use, cost, and availability of components and expertise. Table 1 summarizes these and other key criteria, and shows how well R744 meets them.
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring substance; the atmosphere is comprised of approximately 0.04 percent CO2 (370 ppm). It is produced during respiration by most living organisms and is absorbed by plants. It is also produced during many industrial processes, in particular when fossil fuels such as coal, gas or oil are burned to generate power or drive vehicles.
Table 1 shows a simple comparison of R744 with other types of refrigerants, including those that are currently commonly used and those that are currently being evaluated for future use.
Many R744 systems operate above the critical point some or all of the time. This is not a problem; the system merely works differently and is designed with these needs in mind.
This is post number five of a series, and continues our overview of CO2 as a refrigerant by touching on the potential hazards associated with handling systems where R744 is present.
This is post number seven of a series. Weighing the Advantages and Disadvantages of R744 Table 1 outlines the advantages and disadvantages of R744 as a refrigerant.
This is post number eight of a series. Transcritical, cascade, and secondary CO2 systems This series continues with the introduction of transcritical, cascade and secondary systems; it explains how each system works; and then compares their advantages and disadvantages.
This is post number nine of a series. Introduction to Retail Transcritical Systems The diagram in Figure 1 is a simple single-stage transcritical system. The refrigerant discharged from the compressor flows into the gas cooler where heat is removed.
This is post number ten of a series. Retail Booster Systems Two-stage compression is used for transcritical low temperature applications because the discharge temperature of R744 is high and will potentially result in lubricant breakdown.
This is post number 11 of a series. Retail Cascade Systems The cascade system comprises: The low stage, which provides cooling for the load.
This is post number 13 of a series. Selecting the Best System – Booster Versus Cascade Versus Secondary Table 1 lists the advantages and disadvantages of cascade, transcritical, and secondary retail systems Conclusion Transcritical operation is generally less efficient than subcritical operation, so system type selection is usually driven by the ambient temperature profile
Commercial refrigeration has been in the environmental spotlight for more than a decade, especially as leakage studies have revealed the true effects of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions.
In the best of circumstances, the task of shipping perishable product is fraught with challenges. But maintaining consistent holding temperatures and following proper quality assurance processes is even more difficult when shipping goods in the global cold chain — especially when shipments cross borders between countries. In a recent article for Fresh Plaza, I reviewed the leading strategies for addressing the security risks of shipping perishable goods in the global cold chain.
To navigate this evolving landscape, service technicians should educate themselves on the fundamentals of working with the next generation of lower-GWP refrigerants. Despite critical differences and refrigerant-specific nuances, most long-held and widely adopted servicing best practices still apply.
Get in touch with the new case display
The CC200 case display shows temperatures and values from the CC200 controller on an LED display. It also features an easy touchscreen interface, which provides system data and intuitive navigation within the unit.
To help retailers make best-fit equipment decisions, Copeland has conducted extensive research on the costs to operate next-generation refrigeration technologies throughout the lifecycle. The following are five key considerations for evaluating the TCO of your future refrigeration investments.